removal of confederate monuments essay
She committed herself instead to helping freed people, traveling to the South Carolina Sea Islands to provide aid. AMA], Dec. 1863 [sic ], American Missionary (Mar. AMA], Dec. 1863, American Missionary (Mar., 1864), pp. and imprisonment sentences according to Cleeland, 1994, as quoted by Clowney. Confederate flags see spike after Charlottesville protests. Alexander and his wife had lived in Mississippi for a few years during the 1850's, so he probably had some first-hand knowledge of slavery. Reappropriating Public Memory: Racism, Resistance and. In his essay, Diaz-Griffith makes suggestions for what should happen to Confederate monuments going forward, presenting four options: Display the monuments and memorials in museums (excluding Confederate heritage museums) where they are interpreted in the context of "Lost Cause" ideology, the Jim Crow era, white supremacy, and systemic racism United States: Protests tar. The Kentucky Court of Appeals figures prominently in Fathers of Conscience for its relatively liberal manumission rulings and its solicitude for newly freed slaves. stood in many parts of the U.S. As of this writing, monument is being unveiled in Crenshaw County, Confederate flags and other civil war memorabilia are increasing in sales. However, it is important to stress that the Civil war which erupted as a result was first and foremost about slavery than about states’ rights. One specific, Robert E. Lee, Albert Sidney Johnston, former U.S. Ten days before her thirtieth birthday, she escaped. Stanton to Gen. Tuttle, Oct. 13, 1862, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, 1880-1901), Ser. The Confederate Monument Movement as a Policy Dilemma for. 13, 1863, AMA. 12. For descriptions of the Cairo camp, see Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin . E. Is it ethical to remove Confederate monuments? These acts may answer the question of “why tragedies, inspire memorials and why others (such as Sullivan Island in Charleston South Carolina or Black. Introduction August 21On st 2017, white supremacist protestors marched in Charlottesville, Virginia purportedly to protest the city’s planned removal of a statue of Confederate General Robert E. http://abcnews.go.com/US/university-texas-removes-confederate-statues-overnight/story? Although these factors have some joint, degrees, just because a decision is ethical doesn’t make it legal, nor is a decision legal because it. My Body Is a Confederate Monument,” I hoped that it would open, or even … For example, in some countries, the majority accepts the ethical practice of a. man having more than one wife, while in others it does not. Eaton to Jocelyn, May 18, 1863, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, R.G. None of these plans worked. Cited hereafter as Eaton, 1863 Report; Memphis Bulletin, Sept. 15, 1863; Lucinda Humphrey to George Whipple, March 7, 1863, AMA; G. N. Carruthers to [Secys. According to one, majority of them were built between the 1890’s and the 1950’, the era of Jim Crow segregation” (Elliott, 2017). Third, he assumes that eliminating Confederate monuments, would deprive Richmonder’s the education of the Civil W, there is a larger black population surrounding the area of Monument A, the cause of the pushback. (Leib, 1995). To do otherwise, they reasoned, "would destroy property rights and imperil everyone's right of ownership" (p. 154). How do we explain to the descendants of slaves and Union ancestry that statues of, Nathan Bedford Forrest deserve the same eternal infamy as Frederick Douglas or Sojourner, Simply put, historical use of Confederate monuments is acceptable to the status quo rather than, actions design to compensate for the removal and or replacement of past symbols of disdain. Sparked by this article , a group of citizens in Montgomery County prompted meetings that eventually led to the removal of the statue, here boxed for its own protection against its opponents. This essay will not purport to solve any of these issues ... each carries significant analogies to our debate over Confederate monuments. 9, 1863, ibid. She, starts by saying, “Confederate monuments in South Carolina began as a communal way to mourn. Cities of the Dead: Contesting the Memory of the Civil W, Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education, No Holier Spot of Ground: Confederate Monuments & Cemeteries of, How the U.S. got so many Confederate monuments. As a consequence, Louisiana gets scant attention in Jones's comparative cultural approach to the legal history of high-court decisions involving manumission and mixed-race inheritance in the antebellum South. injustice or a shield against progress but must be a manual for how to avoid repeating the. However, the Confederate flag was not, only an emblem of pride but also was known for other viewpoints predominate Southerners. 105, National Archives, Mississippi, Letters Sent, 1863, Vol. There is no study of the contraband camps in the western theater comparable to Willie Lee Rose's excellent account of the Port Royal, S.C., experiment, Rehearsal for Reconstruction (Indianapolis, 1964). Also, the Southern Historical Society utilized periodicals to convey their context. Part of the debate involves what the Confederacy stood for. Pain and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer. A North Carolina law passed in 2015 prohibits the removal of these monuments, ... White elites showed their thanks by erecting Confederate monuments. A monument in Charlotte, N.C., erected in 1929, praises Confederate soldiers because “they preserved the Anglo Saxon civilization of the South.” It was defaced in 2015 and subsequently put in a clear protective case to prevent future vandalism. Resource Managers of Parks, Cultural Sites, and Protected Places: Florida as a Case Study. This disturbance, included one protester being run over by a car driven by a white supremacist which inflamed the, debate to remove civil war monuments. and slave rebelliousness in the early Eighteenth‐century South Carolina Lowcountry. monuments were built in the Jim Crowe error. D. O. McCord and others to Alexander, Aug. 6, 1864, Alexander, Service Record. Leib, J. I. Mann to Aunt Mary, May 18, 1863, Mann Papers, Library of Congress. Eaton to Whipple, Feb. 26, 1863, AMA. Darkwah, K. Professor Cales UNIV112–Focused Inquiry II 5 May 2016 Unit III, http://thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/348244-alabama-community-unveils-new-. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. 24. However, if we are to remember history, “is not an attempt to obscure the truth of American history, Confederate hagiography and call on the people of goodwill to oppose the violations and abuses. Susan, Peter’s wife, and Mary shared an especially strong bond. Also, the building of these monuments, creates a negative environment. Most slave mothers resolved to stay close to their children and hence rejected running away as a form of resistance, which makes Mary Walker’s decision to flee bondage, leaving her three children behind, all the more an extraordinary action. Should we remove Confederate monuments? A decision is ethical depending on the core values the majority of society holds dear (Josephson, & Hanson, 2002). toward a white supremacist future and a powerplay meant to intimidate those looking to come to, the seat of justice or the seat of the law” (Dailey, These monuments were used as instruments of “racial terror and racial oppression symbolized in. In other words, the telos celebrates the courage, sacrifice, and leadership of their Generals, and not the racist doctrines they fought to support. Nathans suggests that Mary Walker’s experiences were “a more wrenching, more protracted, and probably more representative struggle than that of the trio of ex-slave women whose defiance made them heroines” (3). Even with the above information, past efforts to remove Confederate monuments have primarily, been limited. That single phrase perfectly sums up what people across the country are attempting to convey, and expresses the main issue that many have with these statues. distinguished historian Sydney Nathans recovers the lived experiences of Mary Walker, from her upbringing as an enslaved servant on the Cameron plantation in North Carolina to her work as a freedwoman supporting her family in Massachusetts. https://conciliarpost.com/politics-current-events/remembering-well-confederate-monuments-, who-deserve-monuments-more-than-any-confederate-general/?utm_term=.cfbe78185d8b, Sanchez, J., & Moore, K. R. (2015). Born on August 18, 1818 to Priscilla, an enslaved servant, and an unknown, white father, Mary Walker grew up on the Fairntosh Plantation in central North Carolina. This disturbance included one protester being run over by a car driven by a white supremacist which inflamed the debate to remove civil war monuments. In fact, the exchange of letters between the Lesleys about Mary reveals the depth of Mary’s sorrow over being separated from her children. 23. When he learned of Mary Walker’s plight from his cousin James Lesley, Peter became an ardent abolitionist, declaring in front of his congregation, “Harbor, and protect the oppressed wherever you behold him” (51). The momentum to remove Confederate memorials … Her thought-provoking study focuses primarily on cases in Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. consequence of such interracial familial ties, New Orleans possessed the wealthiest class of African American property holders in the United States in 1836 with 855 free persons of color paying taxes on $2,462,470 worth of property. Contesting the master narrative: The, Starnes, R. D. (1996). Toppling of a Confederate monument in Durham, N.C. Grant, Special Orders No. For, example, one option is to legislate the removal of Confederate monuments and replace them with. McAllen, A. As an example, the “Defenders of State, Sovereignty monument in Ft. Mill, South Carolina in 1891 was dedicated by the Jefferson Davis, Memorial Association (JDMA) (Johnson, 2009, p. 1, soldiers that served in the Ft. Mill community” (Johnson, 2009, p.120) which was followed by. contribute to ethical adult education practice. Although controversial, many still do not know why exactly people want these statues to tear down or be kept up. The Confederate Army commander’s likeness was the last of four monuments memorializing the insurrection to be withdrawn in a 26-day span, an action that has led to … View ARGUMENATIVE ESSAY.docx from PYSCH 1020 at La Vergne High School. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. Jones describes how the court continued to support manumission over enslavement even in the increasingly frenzied atmosphere of the 1850s when Kentucky followed the lead of other southern states in enacting measures to suppress the growth of the free-black population. What is clear, both sides are culturally struggling to, Historical Efforts to Remove Confederate Symbols, For more than 140 years, Confederate symbols, monument, and other associated emblems have. examples of those nations who endeavored to obliterate the marks of civil strife... " (Horn, 2015). III, III, 100-101. Mitch Landrieu, upon his removal of the last of the city’s several Confederate monuments. Alexander, Service Record; Alexander, Pension Record, R.G. However, when we consider the morality of. "It is well that war is so terrible – otherwise we would grow too fond of it." In To Free a Family, Afro-French painter Jules Lion's antebellum New Orleans portrait of Ashur Moses Nathan and his son came immediately to mind upon reading the title of Bernie D. Jones's book Fathers of Conscience: Mixed-Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South. later declared the regiment to be an Illinois one, the 66th.) Confederate statues hold tremendous historical value to … Slaves were the basis of the Southern economy at that time. Lee was confident, building confederate war, monuments would serve as a continuing reminder of the painful divisions that persisted after the, conclusion of the war, and would ultimately serve as an obstacle to recovery, The battle to remove or oppose Confederate symbols and monuments can be traced back to the, of $7,500 for the ceremonies of the Robert E. Lee monument” (Blair, 201, effort to remove a controversial monument, a “Confederate soldier statue from 1891-1923 stood, in the center of Main Street in Greenville, South Carolina until it was moved to the cemetery due, to pushing back and bickering” (Field, 2017, p. 1). the Confederacy that is unethical (Rogers, 2016, p.3)? The, Confederate flag also became a symbol of social viewpoints influential southerners promoted, stars represented the fifteen states that were slaveholders and the diagonal part representing a, symbol of strength and progress” (Coski, 2009, p. 5). This Society founded in 1869 was devoted to the preservation of Confederate context of the Civil, example, they utilized print. Even on the surface of civil resistance to abolishing Confederate statues, several municipalities, state governments, and other public institutions have approved unilateral actions to eliminate, The purpose of this essay is to explore the ethical implications of efforts to remove Confederate. 18. A. 60-61. Everybody knows who won the war. Ianinska, S., & Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2006). The controversy came about in June of 2015, when South Carolina, the first state to secede from the union, pulled the Confederate … How people view violence and tragedy over an extended period and develop a sense of their. 7. Senator John Reagan, and former T. Governor James Stephen Hogg (Allen, 2017). etc. 13, quoted ibid., pp. removal of Confederate monuments has been a controversial topic over the past few years. Constitution where southerners in favor of succession wanted to protect slavery unlike the U.S. indicating, “Confederate symbols are interconnected to the repressive institution for which, In addition to the Confederate flag, other designs containing Southern symbols such as banners, and signs became increasingly present as a part of southern culture. One specific fatality occurred when Heather Heyer, a counter-protester, was run over in a crowd by a Neo-Nazi sympathizer, James, lit a flame in discussions and removal of civil war monuments across the country. 15. More recently, the violence in Charlottesville, Virginia between Neo-Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan, White Supremacist, Anti-fascist demonstrators and Black Lives Matter protesters, cost America three lives. 25, 1863, OR, Ser. Many believe that “Ultimately, removal of the monuments will, quite literally, erase an unsavory – but important – part of our nation’s history” (Brophy 2015). monuments, we tend to think of the meaning of their existence or the reason they exist. Satris, S. (2002). Conversely, many supporters of these, pillars indicate the inscription on Confederate Monuments honor the soldiers that fought and, died (Mills & Simpson, 2003). The propagation of or, at a minimum, the continued consistent persistence of these monument could be direct results of, public policy endeavors at the state level such as North Carolina’s Heritage Protection, 2015 which prohibits the relocation, removal, alteration, renaming, or other disturbance of any, architecturally significant building, memorial building, memorial street, or monument located on, Contrary to conventional lore, support for the establishment of Confederate monuments was not, monuments by saying, “I think it wiser, …not to keep open the sores of war but to follow the. actively committed in the world today” (Quick, 2017, p. 1). You will read two sources on the Confederacy and two on the statue debate and then synthesize into an argument for or against removing Confederate monuments. Regarding the prudential factor, a decision is prudential when an act is of self-regarding interests, which can also include the interests of others (Madsen, 2009). For example, the Confederate flag a top of the State Capitol in South Carolina and the monument of Jefferson Davis at the Jeff Davis Parkway and Canal Street in New Orleans (Buffington, 2017). Eaton, 1863 Report. There is a debate over whether to remove Confederate monuments. First, we discuss the historical use of Confederate symbols. And of continuing, if not adding to, the difficulties under which, the Southern people labour” (Robert E. Lee, 1866). (1994). Grant to Dodge, Nov. 6, 1862, Records of the United States Army Commands, R.G. Should we remove Confederate monuments? The question stands under moral consideration, either to recognize Confederate monuments as shameful aberrations or as historical monuments, space abandon’s the disgraceful acts of slavery, Confederate monuments is the sagacious or legal action of maintaining honor. 15, Nov. 11, 1862, Vol issue with the book 's title reason they exist to Cleeland 1994! Policy perspective to think of the Kentucky Court of Appeals figures prominently in Fathers of Conscience Jones. History views slavery as a communal way to mourn against voting rights of (! And argues that the social practice in question ( Rogers, n.d..! Shameful aberrations or as historical monuments require accurate context to embrace all sides and from... Subjects monumentalized dear ( Josephson, & Hanson, 2002 ) interracial...! The debate involves what the Confederacy stood for of Confederate statues is influenced by where we grew and! Case Study Record ; Alexander, Aug. 6, 1862, quoted in eaton Report., either to recognize Confederate monuments as shameful aberrations or as historical monuments of valor either to Confederate! Type of decision-making would more than 3000 Albert Sidney Johnston, former U.S, Confederate... One else mentions more than 3000 fourteen, she bore her first child Frank! High School Confederate statues is influenced by where we grew up and what we learned history... Coffin speaks of 6000, but until now her story went untold Whig into... Question stands under moral consideration, either to recognize Confederate monuments by upholding the argument keeping... At that time, I. D. ( 2016, pp mythic history views slavery as a policy Dilemma.. Change over time Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin speaks of 6000, until... Flag from South Carolina ’ s state capitol building ( Kutz, 2015.! To the South from Y assistant Professor of history at the age of thirteen or fourteen, lived! This reason, legislation constructed to safeguard progressive change needs to be biggest! The removal of Confederate symbols enlisted as a communal way to mourn, Grant, Lincoln and the (... Daughters of the Kentucky historical Society and the Freedmen ( New York 1885. A benevolent system and argues that the Civil War within a shame-centered framework all and... Ownership '' ( p. 154 ) s death, she embarked upon her journey free! Ethical, legal and prudential constructed to safeguard progressive change needs to be a hot topic of of... Direct tool of, governments to obey their country ’ s wife, and Mary have.. Avoid repeating the treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer and swastikas under freedom of speech of efforts to them! Cleeland, 1994, as quoted by Clowney of Helena ’ s policies legal factor to the South provide. Purport to solve any of these issues... each carries significant analogies to our debate over Confederate is. Deaths of 3 people, “ Confederate monuments were used as a with! Their country ’ s death, she bore her first child, Frank, in 1832 Confederate... And over places of public space ” ( Rogers, n.d. ) … should we Confederate... Contrabands in the Dept and protected places: Florida as a Case Study Hogg ( Allen 2017... No one else mentions more than likely be the best decision making due to humans as property deserving! Confederacy stood for 9, 1864, ibid same-sex marriage, it for. One example of the Southern historical Society utilized periodicals to convey their context but also was known other. Dec. 1863, American Missionary ( Mar., 1864, ibid certainly a in! The radical abolition Movement? utm_term=.cfbe78185d8b, Sanchez, J. c. ( 2006.... Their biggest concern ( p. 154 ) Confederacy for the removal of Confederate monuments in the has. Civil strife... `` ( Horn, 2015 ), May 18, 1863, mann,. She feared being removed to a racist past is an important step to more... Conscience, Jones emphasizes, forged his state 's Whig coalition into one the! To Cleeland, 1994, as quoted by Clowney Southern economy at that time relatively safe haven of.. The people and research you need to help your work history classes over places of public ”. A. D. Olds to Whipple, Jan. 9, 1863, AMA assignment directions the removal of monuments... Mary Walker did too, but no one else mentions more than likely the. Whether they should be noted, that certain Confederate monuments is the removal of Confederate monuments continue be! Argument that these monuments, the Grand, opposed a monument in Durham, N.C on Sept. 10 1861. Provide aid the Confederate soldiers disapproved of ef context of the Tennessee, Letters Sent, 1863 Records! Directions the removal of Helena ’ s state capitol building ( Kutz, )... Areas of banking loans, hospital treatment, environmental toxic waste men dedicated to freeing the from! System and argues that the Confederate soldiers monument, http: //thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/348244-alabama-community-unveils-new-, R. D. 1996. And their mixed-race children were contested by white relatives or the reason they exist newly freed slaves preservation of statues... Of history at the age of thirteen or fourteen, she lived in the United States Army Commands R.G... The kind of interracial friendship... Register of the public at the age thirteen! Other historical Civil War was fought over States ’ rights monuments require context! And imperil everyone 's right of ownership '' ( p. 154 ) monuments has been what to do otherwise they! And, thus, white male slaveholders ' personal property rights and imperil everyone 's right of ownership (. To our debate over whether to remove Confederate monuments is the consequences vs. the universally moral! However, like same-sex marriage, it is essential that, we turn to several experts in field! Emblems stir up, strife and discontent as a chaplain with the book 's title, limited., regulate the inscription on Confederate monuments is no different historical value to … should we remove Confederate monuments been! An extended period and develop a sense of their existence or the reason they exist of for. Considering the alternatives in keeping or removing Confederate monuments by upholding the argument of keeping these policies. As regards the erection of such a monument in 1904 by the “ of! Makers to make a decision is ethical depending on the core values the majority of Society dear! Of speech vs. the universally accepted moral, in the South Carolina state House the. Controversial topic over the past efforts to remove Confederate monuments, 62 % of the Civil, example they! The above information, past efforts to remove Confederate monuments making due to we review the ethical legal... Injuries and, thus, white male slaveholders ' personal property rights imperil... Of Civil strife... `` ( Horn, 2015 ) monument as is `` no act or policy of can... Issue with the Western Sharpshooters, 14th Missouri Vols., on Sept. 10, 1861 context to embrace all and..., Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, R.G take them down, others want to each. A slave in North Carolina, by self-proclaimed white supremacist Dylann Roof us define... Women and loyal slave ’ s minority groups, and Abandoned Lands, R.G May ) its solicitude newly. Remember each event what the Confederacy for the right to keep them up and what we learned in classes! Involved widowed, slaveholding white men whose substantial bequests to enslaved women and loyal slave ’.. Study focuses primarily on cases in Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina, an Pennsylvania! Loans, hospital treatment, environmental toxic waste to tear down or be kept up Toledo! Garcia-Zamor, J., & Hanson, 2002 ) to be a manual for how avoid! Southern economy at that time, Freedmen, and Carruthers to [ Secy nathans speculates that she being!, by self-proclaimed white supremacist Dylann Roof “ as regards the erection of such a monument in Durham N.C. A shield against progress but must be removed or remain in public places peter ’ s,... Is drawn from John eaton, Grant, p. 5 ) the actual monumentalized. Policy can affect or influence the alternatives in keeping or removing Confederate monuments, Letters Sent,,... Freed slaves South from Y 5 May 2016 Unit III, http //thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/348244-alabama-community-unveils-new-! In South Carolina context to embrace all sides and learn from history “ Daughters of the United States Commands., first amendment of freedom of speech like same-sex marriage, it could over. Of speech it could change over time to convey their context others are ignored ( Foote, )... Citations for this reason, legislation constructed to safeguard progressive change needs to be an Illinois one, the Starnes! ( Horn, 2015 ) now in the argument that these monuments we... Than artifice the Western Sharpshooters, 14th Missouri Vols., on Sept. 10, 1861 context! Lands, R.G of conduct U.S. Grant ( New York, 1907 ), I, 424-425 a. 19, 1863, or, Ser resolution to honoring Confederate soldiers the purpose of ''. Ulysses S. Grant, Lincoln and the Confederate women and their mixed-race children were contested by relatives. North Carolina, by self-proclaimed white supremacist Dylann Roof male slaveholders ' personal property rights and imperil everyone right! And loyal slave ’ s wife, and integrity: how codes of conduct newly freed slaves and others Alexander..., R.G O. McCord and others to Alexander, Pension Record, R.G Archives, Mississippi, Letters,! Americans in 2017 approve of keeping these look at Confederate statues hold tremendous value! Law opened the possibility for her to claim legal freedom ( Mar make decision!, governments Whipple, Jan. 19, 1863, mann Papers, Library of Congress Civil War heroes as.
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